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eXtreme Programming

Extreme Programming (XP) is an agile software development methodology that is intended to improve software quality and responsiveness to changing customer requirements.


Extreme Programming (XP) practices vary across different sources due to their evolution over time, diverse interpretations, integration with other Agile methodologies, and adaptations in real-world scenarios. This variation is natural given the principles-based nature of XP. It emphasizes values like communication, simplicity, feedback, and courage over rigid practices. Consequently, teams often adapt XP to fit their specific contexts and project needs, leading to different implementations. Understanding and applying the underlying principles is more crucial than adhering to a strict set of practices.


Extreme Programming (XP) emerged in the late 1990s as part of the broader Agile movement in software development. Its development is primarily attributed to Kent Beck, who wrote the first book on the topic, "Extreme Programming Explained," published in 1999.

extreme programming 2004

Extreme Programming Explained (2004)


Here's a list of the core practices associated with XP:

  • The Planning Game: An approach to iterative planning that involves both business interests and technical insights.

  • Whole Team: The entire team, including developers, managers, and customers, collaboratively works and communicates closely.

  • Customer Acceptance Tests: Having the customer write automated acceptance tests to specify and validate what the code must do.

  • Simple Design: Designing the system as simply as possible at any given moment, adding complexity only when it's necessary.

  • Test-Driven Development (TDD): Writing tests before the code itself and then writing code to pass the tests.

  • Pair Programming: Two programmers working together at one workstation, collaboratively writing code.

  • Continuous Integration: Frequently integrating and building the software, ensuring that changes are compatible.

  • Refactoring: Continuously improving the design of the code, at all times during the development process.

  • Collective Ownership: Allowing anyone on the team to improve any part of the system at any time.

  • Coding Standards: Writing code in accordance with agreed standards to ensure consistency and improve readability.

  • Metaphor: Using a shared story or analogy to help everyone understand how the system works and how it's structured.

  • Sustainable Pace: Working at a pace that can be sustained indefinitely, avoiding burnout and maintaining high-quality standards.

These practices are designed to work together, supporting and reinforcing each other. XP emphasizes technical excellence, close collaboration, and responsiveness to changing requirements, making it a popular methodology in agile software development.