May 13, 2015

Javascript client-side frameworks are sustainable models that offer many advantages over conventional web frameworks, such as simplicity, rapid development, speed of operation, testability, and the ability to package the entire application and deploy it to all movile devices and the Web with relative ease.

Why Use Angular?

  • Expressive HTML (more readible)
  • Modularity
  • Rule-based Navigation
  • Powerful Data Binding (two way)
  • Testable
  • It’s popular (Easy to find help)

What Are the Key Factors in Building a Line of Business Application?

  • Data is an Asset (a critical corporate asset)
  • Amount of Data is Significant
  • Number of Data Fields is Significant (forms)
  • Data Integrity is Crititcal
  • Data Visualization (For data analysis)



  • Define the Model
  • Implement Methods (User interface actions)

Best Practices

  • Define each controller as a separate .js file
  • Suffic the controller with “Controller or Ctrl”
  • Use IIFE

Organizing the Project Structure

  • Everyone knows where everything goes
  • Everyone knows where everything is
  • The result is extensible


  • Template
    • HTML that defines visual elements
    • And directives
  • View
    • Load and rendered template
    • Also called the “live template”

### Module

  • Defines an Angular application
  • Tracks all of the application code
  • Tracks all of the dependencies for the application
  • Keeps the application modularized
// Setter Method

// Getter Method

The IIFE Javascript Pattern

  • Immediately-Invoked Function Expression (IIFE)
    • AKA: Self-executing anonymous function
  • Javascript “var” declarations have global scope
  • Javascript variables and functions defined with a function have local scope


AngularJS uses the MVC design pattern and embraces that pattern completely. The model, view, and controller are all clearly defined in AngularJS.

Business logic should almost always be placed in backend REST services whenver possible.

  • Model: Stores the business data.
  • View: Represents the model in UI.
  • Controller: Responsible for coordinatin between model and view.

RESTful web services

AngularJS’s resource object lets developers interact with REST services like standard objects.

AngularJS services help to greatly simplify an application by compartmentalizing client-side logic into single units of code.

Dependency Injection

Dependency injection (DI) is a design pattern where dependencies are defined in an application as part of the configuration. Dependency injection helps you avouid having to manually create application dependencies.

One of its main advantages is that it reduces the need for boilerplate code, writing of which would normally be a time-consuming proccess.

DI also helps to mak an application more testable.


There are two types of AngularJS tets that integrate well with CI tools:

  • Unit Testing with Karma
  • End-to-end (E2E) with Protractor

Continnous Integration (CI)

CI tools (such as Travis CI or Jenkins) have the ability to run test scripts during build process and give immediate feedback by way of tests resuls.

Testing Considerations

The two most popular test frameworks used for client-side Javascript and AngularJS, Karma and Protractor, run on the Node.js framework. Applications and test scripts that run on Node.js run extremely fast.

Essential Modules

  • angular.min.js (main)
  • angular-route.min.js (routing)
  • angular-cookies.min.js (cookies)
  • angular-resource.min.js (REST)


AngularJS controllers have two primary duties in an application:

  • Controllers should be used to initialize the model scope properties. When a controller is created and attached to the DOM, a child scope is created. The child scope holds a model used specifically for the controller which is attached. You can access the child scope by using the $scope object.
  • Controllers add behavior to the $scope object. We add behavior by adding methods to the scope.

Business Logic

Business logic that needs to be available to multiple controllers should not be placed in the controller but should instead be placed in AngularJS non-REST services.

    .controller('AddonsCtrl',['$scope','checkCreds','$location','AddonsList','$http','getToken',function AddonsCtrl($scope, checkCreds, $location, AddonsList, $http, getToken){
        if(checkCreds !== true){

        $http.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = 'Basic ' + getToken();

            function success(response){
            function error(errorResponse){

        $scope.addonsActiveClass = "active";

Rest Services

Any business logic that can be pushed off the client-side application should be implemented as a REST service and not actually inside the AngularJS application.

REST services must have a response time of two (2) seconds or less.

Accessing Data

Built-In Angular Services for Calling a Web Services

  • $http
  • $resource
  • $httpBackend


  • Facilitates communication with remote Web servers
  • Call is asynchronous
  • When the request is complete:
    • The callback funciton is executed
    • The response object is passed in
    .then(function(response) {
            vm.products =;


  • Angular factory which creates a resource object
    • REST (Representational State Transfer)
  • Abstracts away complexity
  • get: retrieves the specific product
  • query: retrieves all the specified products
  • save: saves modifications to the product
  • delete / remove
function productResource($resource) {
    return $resource("/api/prodcuts/:productId");
productResource.query(function (data) {
    vm.products = data;


Angular’s fake HTTP backend implementation

Mocks the calls to the Web Services

Returns static data to the application

Two implementations:

  • ngMock: for unit testing applications
  • ngMockE2E: for end-to-end testing or backend-less development

Steps to Mocking the Web Server

  1. Download the ngMockE2E module
  2. Create a new module that depends on ngMockE2E
  3. Set up static data
  4. Define the fake responses to the Web Server calls
  5. Add the new module as a dependency in the Main Module
(function (){
    "use strict"

        .run(function ($httpBackend){

            var products = [
                "productId" : 1,
                "productName": "Leaf Rake",
                "productId" : 2,
                "productName": "Leaf Rake",

            var productUrl = '/api/products';




  • Technique for navigating between views
  • Each route represents a specific view
  • Activating a route navigates to that view


  • ngRoute (simple URL navigation)
    • based on URL fragment identifiers
    • each route has
      • URL fragment identifier
      • view template
      • optional controller
  • Ui-Router
    • based on application states
    • each states has
      • optional url fragment identifier
      • view template
      • optional controller
      • additional attached behavior


  • UI router
    • Download UI router
    • Set script tag for angular-ui-router.js index.html
    • Set ui.router as a dependency
  • Layout view
    • Identify where the views appear
    • Add the ui-view directive
    • or use data-ui-view
  • Routes
    • Identify the route states
    • define the routes in the code

$stateProvider Service

(function (){
    "use strict";
    .config(['$stateProvider','$urlRouterProvider',function ($stateProvider,$urlRouterProvider) {
                url: '/products',
                templateUrl: 'app/products/productListView.html',
                controller: 'ProductListController as vm'
Defining a Default state
  • $urlRouterProvider Service
  • Watches $location for changes to the URL
  • When $location changes, it finds a matching state
  • And then activates that state
  • Used behind the scenes
  • Provdies an otherwise() method for defining a default URL

Activating a Route

  • set the URL
  • Call $state.go(‘productList’)
  • Click a link a[ui-sref=”productList”]

Routing to Multiple Views

  • Use Resolve to Preload Data
  • Define Nested Routing States for a Wizard


  • A property attached to a route
  • Can provide the controller with data
  • Identifies dependencies
  • defined with key/value pairs
    url: '/products/:productId',
    templateUrl: 'app/products/productDetailView.html',
    controller: 'ProductDetailController as vm',
    resolve: {
        //dependency productResource
        productResource: "productResource",
        product: function(productResource, $stateParams) {
            var productId = $stateParams.productId;
            return productResource.get({productId: productId}).$promise;

Nested Views

Abstract State

  • Cannot be explicitly activated
  • Activation attempt throws an exception
  • Activated implicitly when child state is activated
    abstract: true,
    url: '/products/edit/:productId',
    templateUrl: 'app/products/productEditView.html',
    controller: 'ProductEditController as vm',
    resolve: {
        //dependency productResource
        productResource: "productResource",
        product: function(productResource, $stateParams) {
            var productId = $stateParams.productId;
            return productResource.get({productId: productId}).$promise;
    templateUrl: 'app/products/productEditInfoView.html'
    templateUrl: 'app/products/productEditPriceView.html'
    templateUrl: 'app/products/productEditTagsView.html'

How to Build a Line of Business Application

  • Colect Busieness Requirements
    • Applications Features
    • Design Considerations
    • Architecture
  • Layout and Navigation
    • Page Layout (view)
    • Style (maybe bootstrap)
    • Navigation (Routing)
  • Data Access (DB - API?)
    • Retrieving data
    • Saving data
  • Data Entry Forms
    • Form layout
    • Validation
    • Submittal
  • Business Logic (Calculus?)
    • Services
  • Data Visualization
    • Charts

And Transversally

  • Exception Handling
  • Unit Testing
  • Security